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How will innovations in biological science change the fairness, safety, and meaning of sports?

Known Gene Variations That Cause Superathleticism

  • ACTN3

    Every Olympic sprinter and weightlifter already carries this allele.

  • EpoR

    Increases red blood cell count, thus boosting oxygen deliver 25-50% and providing Olympian endurance.

  • ACE

    Allows you to climb 8,000-meter peaks without oxygen.

  • SCN9A

    Blocks pain pathways in nerves, allowing athletes to play through pain.

  • MSTN

    When this gene is deactivated, the body grows double the muscle mass.


    Helps the body burn fatty acid for energy and produces no lactic acid so that athletes can run at top speed for 60% longer.

  • TNC & COL5A1

    Determines whether the body is susceptible to tendon and ligament injury.

  • LRP5

    Creates “unbreakable” bones by increasing skeletal density.

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